Studies in the distribution of body fat. Irrespective of birth cohort, about one-quarter of all women were ever-smokers table 1. Role of waist-hip ratio. The interaction of sociological and biological factors in adolescent cigarette smoking. In western cultures, a low waist-to-hip ratio is considered sexually more attractive in women. All analyses were conducted using R software, V. Our data are right truncated and individuals from younger birth cohorts have had less opportunity to quit smoking compared to individuals from older birth cohorts. While right truncation complicates comparison of time-related variables between birth cohorts, differences between men and women from the same birth cohort are less likely to be affected.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; The study by Saarni et al. This difference in smoking prevalence does not detract from the study's internal validity and its main findings that pertain to sex differences in smoking habits. Results for current and previous smoking are shown in online supplementary table S1. This should be highlighted in publicizing the negative effects of smoking, especially among young women who smoke, or those who are considering starting. Large breasts and narrow waists indicate high reproductive potential in women. Calcif Tissue Int ; While right truncation complicates comparison of time-related variables between birth cohorts, differences between men and women from the same birth cohort are less likely to be affected. Cigarette smoking, steroid hormones, and bone mineral density in young women. The interaction of sociological and biological factors in adolescent cigarette smoking. Smoking habits Self-report questions on smoking behaviour in the UK Biobank were adapted from various longitudinal epidemiological studies and surveys, after consultation with experts in the field. Statistical analyses The outcome metrics were the women-to-men prevalence ratios in smoking status, and the women-minus-men mean differences in age at smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked daily, smoking pack-years cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of years smoked and age at smoking cessation. All analyses were conducted using R software, V. Association of smoking in adolescence with abdominal obesity in adulthood: Am J Public Health ;99 2: Irrespective of birth cohort, about one-quarter of all women were ever-smokers table 1. Studies in the distribution of body fat. In the present study, smoking status was defined based on regular smoking habits, that is, current smokers were individuals who smoked on most or all days, previous smokers were individuals who had done so in the past, and ever-smokers were these two groups combined. Methods Data source Cross-sectional data were obtained from the UK Biobank, a large-scale, prospective cohort study among men and women aged 40—69 at baseline. The median year of birth was IQR — , and they were recruited when, on average, aged 57 years SD 8 years. To further understand whether behavioural differences in smoking habits between women and men may explain the smoking-related excess relative risks observed in women in previous studies, and to ultimately inform national and international sex-specific tobacco control policies, we examined the current and past smoking habits of women and men who were recruited into the UK Biobank study. Effects of cigarette smoking. The cross-sectional nature of our analyses precluded examination of the associations between smoking characteristics and chronic disease outcomes in women and men which can only be examined using longitudinal data; we aim to explore this further in the UK Biobank sample, once sufficient numbers of events have accrued. The analyses were stratified by 5-year birth cohort ranging from to Am J Epidemiol ; 3:
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