In both cases, technical considerations favor successful conversion to a female rather than a male. Some undergo this as their only gender-identity confirming 'bottom surgery'. Intraoperative death has not been reported. It should therefore be undertaken with extreme care and caution. Gender reassignment surgery is irreversible, so a candidate must have no doubts about accepting the results and outcome. In-depth psychological counseling should precede and follow any gender reassignment surgical procedure. It is usually advised to stop all hormonal therapy 2 to 3 weeks preoperatively. However, in no case studied did the gender reassignment procedure diminish their ability to work. Following the surgery, female hormones estrogen will reshape the body's contours and stimulate the growth of satisfactory breasts.
The next operative procedure consists of the genital transformation and includes a vaginectomy, a reconstruction of the horizontal part of the urethra, a scrotoplasty and a penile reconstruction usually with a radial forearm flap or an alternative. Following the surgery, female hormones estrogen will reshape the body's contours and stimulate the growth of satisfactory breasts. Genital surgery, transsexual, gender reassignment surgery, phalloplasty, subcutaneous mastectomy Transsexual patients have the absolute conviction of being born in the wrong body and this severe identity problem results in a lot of suffering from early childhood on. Purpose There are two main reasons to alter the genital organs from one sex to another. Newborns with intersex deformities must early on be assigned to one sex or the other. The risk will probably never be known since the overall population of transgender men is very small;[ improper synthesis? Nevertheless, they were all pleased with the change of sex. A relatively common complication of female to male surgery is dysfunction of the penis. The skin is stripped from the penis but left attached, and a shorter urethra is cut C. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy[ edit ] Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus. Estrogens female hormones will stimulate breast development, widening of the hips, loss of facial hair and a slight increase in voice pitch. Demographics Reliable statistics are extremely difficult to obtain. Implanting a penile prosthesis is technically difficult and does not have uniformly acceptable results. Androgens male hormones will stimulate the development of facial and chest hair and cause the voice to deepen. For trans men with smaller breasts, a peri-areolar or "keyhole" procedure may be done where the mastectomy is performed through an incision made around the areola. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy BSO is the removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes. This dissonance is so profound that they are willing to be surgically altered. If surgical candidates are socially or emotionally unstable before the operation, over the age of 30, or have an unsuitable body build for the new gender, they tend not to fare well after gender reassignment surgery. While the rates of endometrial and cervical cancer are overall higher than ovarian cancer, and these malignancies occur in younger people, it is still highly unlikely that this question will ever be definitively answered. Hysterectomy without BSO in women is sometimes erroneously referred to as a 'partial hysterectomy' and is done to treat uterine disease while maintaining the female hormonal milieu until natural menopause occurs. The number of deaths in male-to-female transsexuals was five times the number expected, due to increased numbers of suicide and death from unknown cause. Newborns with ambiguous organs will almost always be assigned to the female gender unless the penis is at least an inch long. These deformities represent intermediate stages between the primordial female genitals and the change into male genitals caused by male hormone stimulation. The average in one study was 29 years. Accurate statistics are extremely difficult to find. Alternatives There is no alternative to surgical reassignment to alter one's external genitalia. Morbidity and mortality rates The risks that are associated with any surgical procedure are present in gender reassignment surgery.
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